The expectant mother and the fetus throughout the pregnancy are an inseparable, unified, smoothly functioning system. That is why it is so important to protect the health of the unborn child when treating the expectant mother. Data from the World Health Organization indicates that during pregnancy more than 90% of women take prescription or over-the-counter medications.
Prescribing drugs for pregnant women should take into account the impact on maturation and activity of germ cells, fertilization, implantation of the fetal egg, stages of embryogenesis and fetogenesis. Adverse effects of taking medications during pregnancy may be a slowdown in intrauterine development of the embryo, with subsequent retardation of the child’s intellectual and physical development.
Can pregnant women take medications?
Parenthood is one of the most important periods in a woman’s life, when she, as never before, should look after herself to give birth to a healthy child. But pregnancy lasts for 9 calendar months, and during this period it is difficult not to encounter health problems. Therefore, it would not be true to say that it is strictly forbidden to take medicines during pregnancy.
There are a number of rules that should be followed when taking medications:
- during pregnancy at any term, the medication can be drunk only when prescribed by the attending physician in accordance with his indications;
- when choosing medications, you should give preference only to those with proven efficacy;
- it is undesirable to use a combined treatment, prioritizing monotherapy – the use of only one drug;
- local application of a drug is preferable to systemic application.
What to treat during pregnancy
Medications for pregnant women are divided into:
- Dangerous – category D. For the fetus, their use involves some risk, but prescription is possible for vital indications (diclofenac, anticonvulsants, doxycycline, kanamycin). Absolute taboo – category X, drugs that are contraindicated to drink during pregnancy.
- Relatively unsafe – Category C. Drugs in trials have shown embryotoxic or teratogenic effects. These are anti-Parkinsonian drugs, isoniazid, antidepressants, and others. Prescribed only when efficacy is greater than the potential risk.
- Relatively safe drugs – category B, their studies have not revealed teratogenic effects (amoxicillin, heparin, insulin, aspirin, metronidazole). They are prohibited in the first trimester.
- Safe – Category A. Tests have shown no risk for (paracetamol, folic acid, magnesium sulfate, levothyroxine sodium).
Colds, sore throat
Colds are common ailments during pregnancy, especially in winter and during the off-season. Therefore, it is important to know what medications to take during pregnancy, if a woman in the position has symptoms of a cold – a sore throat, runny nose. With cold remedies is simple to understand: for pregnant women are safe drugs that are used in the treatment of children from birth to 3 years. Minimal dosages are not dangerous for the future baby. You can get rid of runny nose with moisturizing drops based on sea water – aqualor, aquamaris and the like.
If a sore throat occurs during pregnancy, it is necessary to find out its etiology in order to rule out angina and tonsillitis. With a common cold, it is effective to gargle with myrmistin, warm chamomile solution or 0.1% chlorhexidine solution. In the list of medicines for sore throat are laripront and lisobact. They can be sucked up 3-4 times a day in 2 pieces.
Poisoning, bowel problems, stool problems
An unpleasant and quite dangerous problem is food poisoning during pregnancy. Treatment with this prescribes only a doctor. However, a good option enterosorbent in this period is Polysorb. Its effectiveness and safety has been confirmed by numerous studies. It gently removes poisons and toxins, without penetrating into the blood, without affecting the organs. The dosage depends on the weight of the woman.
Concerns during pregnancy and constipation. To stabilize stools, safe remedies are allowed, such as:
- Glycerin suppositories – the means are fast acting, quite effective, but you should not drink them too often, caution in use should also be exercised in the 1st trimester and if there is a threat of miscarriage;
- Probiotics – for example, Probiolog or Linex capsules;
- mild drugs approved in most cases as laxatives during pregnancy – Dufalak or Normase syrups, Mucofalk, Forlax.
Allergies, blood pressure.
Allergies give pregnant women a lot of trouble. Assign the treatment, as in other cases, can only be a doctor, conducting a special study on the type of allergen. Based on its results, the appropriate medication will be chosen. One of the most common and safe antiallergic agents is Suprastin, which can be taken in acute manifestations.
The cause of a woman’s ill health during pregnancy can also be high blood pressure. This is a dangerous condition for the expectant mother and the developing fetus, which requires mandatory consultation with the doctor to prescribe treatment. Self-treatment is not allowed. Usually prescribe medications that are considered acceptable, such as Dopegit, Papazol, Egilok, and other drugs from this category.
If a pregnant woman is tormented by insomnia, you should not leave the problem without attention. Healthy sleep is a guarantee of well-being of the future mother, and therefore, her baby. And although experts unanimously call for the rejection of drugs that help to combat it, in severe cases, when the expectant mother is losing strength and feeling poorly, Pustyrnik, Valeriana, Glycine, Magne B-6, Nervohel, Valerianohel can be prescribed. These drugs are not sleeping pills in the literal sense, their action is aimed at stabilizing the nervous system and improving sleep. Only a doctor can prescribe them.
Headaches are no less dangerous, the occurrence of which can have many causes.
Their establishment will allow the doctor to determine the list of medications that should be taken by a pregnant woman to alleviate the condition. So, with migraine, depending on the trimester, prescribe to drink paracetamol, ibuprofen.
It is generally believed that during pregnancy, no hormones are prescribed or taken. However, the lack of progesterone – the main hormone in pregnancy – during the first trimester is the main cause of miscarriages. To compensate for this deficiency, the doctor may prescribe a pregnant woman to take artificial progesterone analogues – Utrogestan or Dufaston.
The first is a natural progesterone derived from plant material, while the second is an artificially synthesized analog of the natural hormone. Dufaston reduces the risk of premature birth and halves the risk of feto-placental insufficiency. In addition, brain damage due to hypoxia in newborns is much less common. Utrogestan restores hormonal balance and has a positive effect on child development. It is up to the attending physician to decide which medicine a woman will take.
Drugs for thrush
Vulvovaginal candidiasis or thrush is one of the most common infections of the female genitalia, provoked by pregnancy. Burning, itching in the genital area, curdish discharge require consultation with your doctor. The choice of medicine he will prescribe to take is influenced by the term of pregnancy, individual sensitivity to the components.
However, the condition of pregnancy does not involve the use of traditional therapy, so the doctor usually prescribes suppositories that are safe in this period:
- “Candide” – has a broad antifungal action.
- “Livarol” – with antifungal activity;
- “Poliginax” – a combination drug, which includes polymyxin B, neomycin, nystatin;
- “Hexicon” – a universal remedy with the active component – chlorhexidine, an antiseptic that kills most pathogenic microorganisms;
- “Diflucan” – contain fluconazole, effective against different types of fungi.
What medicines can harm a child
The effectiveness of the pharmacological effects of most drugs on the body of a pregnant woman and her unborn child is insufficiently studied. Therefore, pregnancy and lactation are listed as contraindications in the instructions for many drugs.
Their active ingredients may have teratogenic and toxic effects, and can cause serious defects in the fetus, as well as fetal death.
The list of medicines that are prohibited for pregnant women include some vitamin preparations, hormonal drugs. Also, expectant mothers need to be careful with such medications:
- Hypotensive drugs (chlorthiazide, reserpine);
- Certain groups of antibiotics (tetracycline, streptomycin);
- analgesics (indomethacin, aspirin);
- Vitamin A, the daily dose of which exceeds 10,000 IU.
Summary table of approved medications
Medical studies have established which drugs can be taken during pregnancy, as they are considered safe:
|Drug groups||The safest medications|
|Analgesics||NSAIDs (except during labor), paracetamol, narcotic analgesics (short courses)|
|Antidepressants||Trazodone, venlafaxine, fluoxetine,|
|Antibiotics||Clindamycin, cephalosporins, aminopenicillins, trimethoprim (except in 1st trimester), macrolides (Wilpafen), azithromycin, erythromycin, metronidazole (except in 1st trimester), penicillins|
|Antihypertensives||Hydralazine, B-adrenoblockers, prazosin, methyldopa|
|Antiemetics||Prochlorperazine, andacids, vitamin B, doxylamine, promethazine|
|Cardiovascular drugs||Nitroglycerin, B-adrenoblockers, digoxin, calcium channel blockers|
|Gastrointestinal medications.||Metoclopramide, sucralfate|
|Antiasthmatics/anti-allergic agents||Theophylline, epinephrine, inhaled bronchodilators|
|Constipation medications||Methylcellulose, bisacodyl|
|Thyroid hormones||Lyothyronine, levothyroxine|