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Wondering what is the best vitamin D to take when pregnant? Or don’t know what the dosage should be? Not fully understand the benefits and importance of this trace element? Further in the article we will consider why almost every pregnant woman needs to take vitamin D and what negative consequences lead to a deficiency of this trace element.
Vitamin D during pregnancy plays a special role. It also affects the fertility of women, the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the formation of the female body. Therefore, doctors recommend maintaining a normal value of the micronutrient at each stage: preparation for conception, pregnancy and lactation.
Norms for the expectant mother
Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with the risk of developing pre-eclampsia. In other words, there may be arterial hypertension accompanied by proteinuria. There is also a risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D in pregnancy should be taken during the entire period of pregnancy.
If the future mother will take the substance in the right amount, the child will accumulate it and consume it during the first 6 months of life. Therefore, a weighty role is played by the dosage, which must be observed. The content of trace elements in the body of the baby directly depends on how much of them the expectant mother took during the period of pregnancy.
During pregnancy, vitamin D should be within the following recommended limits: 15 micrograms per day or 600 IU. For breastfeeding mothers, the norm is 30 mcg per day or 1200 IU.
Taking in the first two trimesters of pregnancy
In the first trimester, the fetus develops most of its organs and body systems. There is also the laying down of the collagen matrix in the skeleton. In the 2nd trimester, skeletal calcification occurs, which leads to a greatly increased need for calcium.
If you do not comply with the norm of vitamin D in pregnancy, it will lead to severe complications. Thus, reduced bone mineral density to the development of osteoporosis, gestational diabetes may occur. If there is a pronounced D-deficiency, and a pregnant woman will receive a dose of less than 800 IU per day, there will be no preventive effect.
Therefore, if there is a question of whether you can take vitamin D during pregnancy, it is worth consulting with your doctor. He will prescribe tests to determine the level of the substance, its shortage and the norm. For almost all pregnant women, it will be advisable to take 4000-5000 IU per day. This will help to avoid adverse effects.
Benefits of the micronutrient
Vitamin D3 in pregnancy is considered a micronutrient responsible for women’s health. Its consumption in the female body is much higher than in men. This is due to the functions of the female body. Therefore, at different periods of life, the need for the substance in the body can increase. Because of this, it is necessary not only to monitor the level of calciferol, but also to avoid its deficiency or overabundance.
Vitamin D in pregnancy is extremely necessary because it has the following benefits:
- Is responsible for blood levels of calcium, phosphorus, which are responsible for preserving and strengthening musculoskeletal tissue;
- plays a role for the musculoskeletal system, including the correct posture;
- controls the work of the immune, cardiovascular, hormonal and nervous systems, and is also responsible for the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism;
- Contributes to the preservation of pregnancy, especially in the 1st and 2nd trimester;
- has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties;
- positively affects the formation of fetal immunity and bone tissue.
Thus, it is difficult to underestimate the benefits of this trace element. It is only necessary to take into account that taking vitamin D during pregnancy in the early terms should be in a less high dosage than in the latter terms.
The importance during pregnancy
Among pregnant women, vitamin D deficiency is quite common. The level of this substance plays a huge role in the formation of the fetus, as well as its development. Thus, there is a direct and very close relationship between the level of trace element D in the blood of the mother and in the blood of the fetus. Thus, if a pregnant woman has a pronounced vitamin D deficiency, with a probability of 90% it will be present in the child.
In the most severe forms, the deficiency can lead to significant consequences. Including include intrauterine rickets. If a micronutrient deficiency is expressed in a mild form, it is easy to compensate. Nevertheless, be aware of all the possible risks: the negative impact on the development of the fetal immune system, infectious diseases, immune dysfunction in the future.
Functions of vitamin D in pregnancy:
- Regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in fetal bone tissue;
- influence on fetal innate immunity;
- Influence on fetal skeletal system development, dental enamel formation;
- regulation of glucose metabolism.
Levels of the substance have a long-term impact on the health of the child. Numerous epidemiological studies confirm the fact that vitamin D affects the risks of diseases that have a long latent period – cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes.
Consequences of overdosing
Quite often, during the period of childbearing, women start taking vitamin complexes, synthesized D3 in the form of medicines. It is worth bearing in mind that it is fat-soluble and difficult to excrete from the body. As a result of prolonged overdose (from 10,000 Me and above), the substance already reaches the degree of toxicity in a couple of days. Its excess can also lead to negative consequences.
Hypersensitivity to this substance can also provoke an overdose. Women should not worry about an overabundance because of too long exposure to the sun. Hypervitaminosis can manifest itself in two stages:
- first there is nausea, thirst, severe headaches, GI problems, cramps, increased irritability, muscle and joint pain;
- further calcium deposition in the soft tissues, which can lead to atherosclerosis.
Increased vitamin D in pregnancy can lead to frequent colds, arrhythmia, hypertension, liver enlargement. Therefore, the dosage of the substance is prescribed by the doctor only after the results of blood tests. If prolonged intake is recommended, the expectant mother must be under constant supervision.
The need for high doses
Deficiency of vitamin D is observed in 75% of the world’s population. The reasons that this substance is lacking in the female body may be:
- Insufficient production under the influence of the sun;
- Winter-spring period;
- Unbalanced diet and protein diets;
- The presence of diseases of the liver, kidneys, gallbladder, small intestine;
- lack of physical activity.
- taking anti-cholesterol drugs and antacids (reduce high levels of acidity in the stomach);
- chronic diseases of the endocrine system.
In these cases, the daily dosage value may be slightly higher than in standard situations. In any case, it is necessary to be guided by three factors: test results, general well-being and the recommendations of the attending physician.
Risk groups and getting rid of diseases
In the risk group (patients who necessarily need to take vitamin D) include women, with chronic renal / hepatic failure, with bone disease, obesity, tuberculosis. Recognize vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy can be recognized by several symptoms: increased brittleness of nails and hair, excessive sweating, muscle weakness.
Also identify the need for a micronutrient can be identified by such factors: poor quality of sleep, fatigue, a tendency to depression, constant mood swings. Vitamin D deficiency for pregnant women is especially dangerous in the first trimester. Because of the deficit, there is a disorder of the phosphorus-calcium metabolism, which leads to diseases such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Including an increased risk of cancer. If you do not drink vitamin D in the right dosage, there may be an adverse pregnancy outcome.
What foods contain vitamin D
Vitamin D is contained in the following foods: fatty fish, liver, egg yolk, some cereals. The substance is also synthesized in the body when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet waves of sunlight. To get the micronutrient in the right amount, it is recommended to be in the sun at least 2 times a week from 10 am to 3 pm.
Insufficient intake of trace element D with food can be compensated by getting the substance in supplements or by drinking vitamin-mineral complexes. Preference should be given to “natural” substance, which is better absorbed from food.
Vitamin D in pregnancy affects the condition of the expectant mother and her baby. When it is deficient, there are unpleasant consequences that have a negative impact on the body. The substance is of great benefit, but you need to know in what dosage to take it, how long. This can only be told by the attending physician, based on the results of tests.