Table of Contents
- What is toxicosis
- Types of toxemia in pregnant women
- Causes of the complication
- Why else does toxicity happen
- Causes that worsen the state of toxicity.
- Signs of toxicity
- Degrees of severity of toxicity in pregnancy
- Methods of treatment
- When to consult a doctor
- Tips for relief
- How dangerous is a complication for the mother and the unborn child?
Many women in the period of pregnancy are faced with a very unpleasant phenomenon, such as toxemia during pregnancy. This condition is so common that pregnant women in whom it does not manifest itself, seriously worried about its absence. In fact, the myth that toxicity is a necessary companion of fertilization in 100% of cases has no basis in fact.
It is worth noting that the level of toxins really rises after conception in the body of every woman, and this process is completely natural. However, the manifestation of classic symptoms does not always occur. Therefore, it is important to separate the medical truth from pseudoscientific myths about toxicosis during pregnancy.
What is toxicosis
To understand whether toxicosis in pregnancy is a natural state for a woman in this state or a complication in carrying a child, it is necessary to understand what it is at all. Specialists classify this condition as a special form of poisoning of the body. In the female body, foreign particles of the embryo, which is the “daddy” component of it, cause a real hormonal storm, leading to changes in the well-being of the expectant mother.
In addition, the developing fetus produces waste products, which it releases into the mother’s body and causes her intoxication. The body reacts to this with the classic symptoms of poisoning – nausea, vomiting, weakness, general malaise.
Types of toxemia in pregnant women
In medicine, it is customary to allocate such types of similar pathology as rare, early, late toxicosis. Rare is called such a toxemia in pregnancy, when nausea occurs suddenly on any term of pregnancy and the manifestations of the condition are exclusively individual. The second option – toxemia during pregnancy in the early terms. It is manifested by specific symptoms at the beginning of the first trimester. A classic example is the sudden nausea that comes up, which serves as a first bell of impregnation.
For such signs of toxicity planning pregnancy women usually treat without aversion and very favorably, and the symptoms of early type of complications are fairly easily tolerated. The third type – late toxicosis, which awaits pregnant women in the third trimester and is very dangerous for the mother and fetus.
Causes of the complication
Scientific research has never been able to reliably establish why there is toxicity during pregnancy in some women and does not manifest itself in any way in others. However, the reasons for its occurrence are known. Among them:
- Changes in the composition of hormones from the moment of fertilization, which is reflected in the pregnant woman’s well-being and is manifested in irritability, resentfulness, aggravation of the sense of smell. Hormone levels will return to normal after some time, the body will “get used” to the embryo, and toxicosis will stop.
- Not formed placenta. Studies have shown that the symptoms of toxicity in early pregnancy are due to the fact that the placenta is not fully formed. Because one of the functions it has to perform is the retention of toxic substances. Before this process is fully completed, the body tries to protect itself from intoxication by vomiting.
Why else does toxicity happen
Among the reasons that experts call in the manifestation of toxicosis during pregnancy – chronic diseases. To exclude this cause, it is desirable to undergo a complete examination at the stage of pregnancy planning and to begin taking vitamins.
In addition to chronic diseases among the causes of such a condition is not the least role played by heredity.
Genetic predisposition and the presence of a complication in women in the previous generation, for example, its manifestation in the mother at 16 weeks, has a 70% chance that her daughter will develop the same condition. In addition to the causes of early pregnancy toxemia, in the third trimester it can manifest itself due to the psychological state of the mother. She worries about the approaching birth, the baby’s condition, which provokes toxicosis.
Causes that worsen the state of toxicity.
In addition, in some women, toxicosis is a kind of protective reaction to pathogens contained in products, which can be dangerous to health. For example, cigarette smoke, coffee, meat, eggs cause nausea and gag reflex, protecting the body from dangerous substances. According to scientists, during pregnancy the nervous system undergoes changes, activating those centers in the brain that are responsible for smell and gastrointestinal function.
Among the factors that increase the unpleasant symptoms of toxicity during pregnancy also:
- multiple pregnancy – the probability of such manifestations in women who are pregnant with twins is higher than in those who are expecting a single baby;
- Age – complications occur more often in women after 30-35 years, especially the risk in the first pregnancy, experts say that the toxicosis is transferred the easier the younger is mommy.
Signs of toxicity
Toxicosis in early pregnancy usually has characteristic manifestations, and initially a woman experiences:
- constant sleepiness;
- increased salivation;
- change in taste preferences,
- loss of appetite,
- weight loss.
Subfebrile fever, dizziness, and fainting may also be present. Much less often, when carrying a child, toxemia may appear in the form of dermatosis, asthma.
Manifestations of symptoms of toxicity and their content do not depend on who is expecting a pregnant woman – a son or daughter. Signs of intoxication may appear equally in a normally developing or a frozen pregnancy. Such a condition is detrimental to a woman’s well-being and forces her to look for ways to deal with toxemia during pregnancy.
Degrees of severity of toxicity in pregnancy
Despite the fact that early toxicosis during pregnancy is considered a physiological condition that does not require medical intervention, the medical response takes into account the level of severity of the manifested complication, which comes in three degrees. The first is characterized by vomiting up to 5 times or the same number of episodes of nausea, which did not end in vomiting. The appetite of the pregnant woman is good, the quality of life is the same, so in this condition it is premature to consult specialists about the symptoms of toxemia.
The second degree suggests the presence of vomiting 5-10 times a day, loss of appetite, weight loss. Also with oral hygiene, bad breath appears. At this stage, a doctor’s consultation is needed. The third is severe, which requires hospitalization, as there is vomiting 10-25 times a day, a sharp decrease in weight, there is a strong weakness, the pulse is rapid.
Methods of treatment
There are no special treatments for toxemia during pregnancy – it is aimed at maintaining the vital signs of the body and is symptomatic in nature, to ensure the favorable development of pregnancy and successful delivery. If a woman is diagnosed with second-degree toxicosis in an outpatient or at home, the patient is assigned a drug treatment, selected according to the results of tests. Its main purpose is to replenish the deficit of nutrients and vitamins, suppress the gag reflex.
In the case of the development of complications of the 3rd degree, there is no way to do without therapeutic measures in an inpatient setting. A woman is under the supervision of doctors, she is put under various drips in order to restore the water-salt balance, eliminate intoxication in the body, abdominal pain, muscle cramps, lower blood pressure, overcome general weakness.
When to consult a doctor
The absolute harmlessness of toxemia during pregnancy is one of the common myths. However, physiologically acceptable condition can only be considered a situation where toxicity during pregnancy begins at 5 – 6 weeks, and ends about 13 – 14 weeks. It is exceptionally dangerous if the complication appears in the middle of the 2nd trimester. This moment is one of the important reasons to see a doctor.
Dehydration due to constant vomiting and exhaustion due to the loss of nutrients with a weight loss of more than 2.5 kg per week require an urgent visit to a specialist. Immediately need the help of a doctor and when urination has become infrequent, and the urine has acquired a dark color. Dangerous symptoms are also the occurrence of abdominal pain when trying to be active, dizziness, accompanied by vomiting, the inability to eat for 12 hours.
Tips for relief
What helps from toxicosis in pregnancy, experts advise to check, listening to the reactions of the body. For example, in the morning, without getting out of bed, eat some dried fruit, a cracker or a piece of bread. Then drink mint tea with lemon and a little sugar to normalize glucose levels. Sucking on a slice of lemon or orange can relieve an attack of nausea. It is necessary to drink beverages suitable for the particular woman – it can be plain water, herbal teas.
Doctors advise consuming fruits that contain a lot of fluid – melon, grapes, watermelon. Introduce steamed foods into the diet instead of spicy, fried foods. Yogurt, raw vegetables, fruits can be used as a snack. Another tip – eat often and in small portions, eat a banana or an apple during the day, and do not go to bed to rest after eating. Helps grandmother’s method – at the first signs of toxicity – a spoon of honey.
How dangerous is a complication for the mother and the unborn child?
The negative impact of complications on the body of a woman depends on the degree of its development. The first degree proceeds naturally, often manifested only by morning sickness and harmless to the body of the woman. The second degree is not dangerous in some cases, and by 14 weeks with a normal course the symptoms disappear. The third stage is the most dangerous for the health of the fetus and the woman. It is accompanied by exhaustion and dehydration.
In its development, it is possible to develop complications such as:
- pulmonary edema;
- In the later stages of pregnancy – placental insufficiency;
- Risk of premature birth;
- Fetal retardation;
- Kidney and heart failure;
- against the background of exhaustion – falling into a coma.
Unfortunately, toxicity in pregnant women is not always in its mild form. With an increase in the negative symptomatology of the complication, the risk of complications increases proportionally.