The desire to become a mother is one of a woman’s most natural desires, the realization of which can be hindered by health problems that prevent women from conceiving and bearing a child. According to statistics, a third of couples who want to become parents, can not do it because of female infertility. The causes of this disease can be very different, moreover, this diagnosis is not a final verdict, and does not mean that motherhood for a woman ordered forever.

However, in order to successfully fight the disease, you must first determine the causes of female infertility. This will allow you to develop a competent strategy and tactics to combat the disease and more quickly get a positive result. If a married couple whose sex life is regular, and contraception is not used, for 12 months can not conceive, to help this can only be a doctor.

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Types of female infertility

The success of the measures carried out depends on what type of female infertility will be diagnosed. There are two forms of the disease:

  • primary – in which a woman is unable to bear a child due to the inability either to conceive a baby or to bear and produce a living child after the beginning of sexual activity;
  • Secondary – the inability to conceive again after a woman has already had a pregnancy in the past or she was previously able to bear and bear a live child.

Absolute infertility is considered if a woman for any reason lacks the uterus or fallopian tubes. In the past, this kind of female infertility made it absolutely impossible to carry a baby by oneself. However, the development of reproductive technologies, such as IVF (in vitro fertilization) or surrogacy, gives such women a chance to become mothers of a biologically natural child.

Relative infertility in women

In addition to the classification of the disease on the principle of primary and secondary, there is such a concept as relative infertility. Temporary or relative type of female infertility is often associated with causes that are currently an obstacle to conception. The disease, for example, may be a consequence of anovulation – monophasic menstrual cycle, which, while preserving the regularity of uterine bleeding is characterized by the absence of ovulation.

This situation may occur due to various circumstances, which include puberty, a change of climate or the onset of menopause. Relative female infertility can be overcome if the time to deal with the problem seriously, to see a doctor, to develop the right tactics and adhere strictly to the chosen treatment concept.

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The main causes of female infertility

The most important determining factor for the implementation of the classification are the causes that interfere with conception. These include infertility, defined as:

  • Tubal-peritoneal – expressed in the obstruction of the fallopian tubes in the development of atrophy of the cilia, which ensure the promotion of the egg inside the tubes, or inflammatory processes;
  • Endocrine – usually a result of pathology of the ovaries, manifested in their exhaustion, the presence of polycystic ovarian syndrome, as well as dysfunction of endocrine (thyroid gland, hypothalamus, adrenal glands, pituitary gland), non-endocrine organs (kidneys, liver). This type of female infertility may also lead to mental stress and metabolic disorders. A key point of endocrine infertility is always a failure in the mechanism of ovulation – anovulation.
  • Immunological – characterized by the development of antibodies to the male sex cells.
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What else is caused by infertility

Among the causes of female infertility also call pathology or lack of uterus – the organ in which the embryo is fixed and the fetus develops within 9 months – uterine infertility. This pathology is congenital and may be expressed in the doubling and bicornuate uterus, the presence of an intrauterine septum, as well as acquired, caused by polyposis, myoma, uterine scarring or uterine removal and other factors. Endometriosis may also be the cause of the problem – the pathological overgrowth of the internal mucous layer of the uterus beyond its limits.

Leads to female infertility chromosomal abnormalities. Sterility and psychological form of infertility leads to a conscious or subconscious woman’s unwillingness to have a baby. Sometimes it is fear of pregnancy and childbirth, sometimes – the unwillingness to become the mother of the baby of the man or unwillingness to expose the appearance of changes that can result from pregnancy.

Female infertility – causes and treatment, signs, symptoms and classification

Female Infertility Factors

A negative factor in female infertility that can affect the development of the disease is age. At the time of birth, a woman is a carrier of about 400,000 eggs. However, the number of inactive follicles increases with age, which reduces their response to hormones. As a consequence, the egg does not reach its maximum maturation phase, which causes non-ovulatory cycles.

Another factor in female infertility is “oocyte aging”. It is associated with chromosomal changes, leading to the inability to fertilize the egg, abnormalities in embryonic development, provoking miscarriages. Classification of factors also includes idiopathic or “infertility of unclear genesis”. It is defined if the comprehensive examination of both partners does not identify the reasons why the pregnancy does not occur. This situation is not uncommon and affects about 5-7% of infertile couples.

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Female infertility – causes and treatment, signs, symptoms and classification

Symptoms of Infertility in Women

Usually, reproductive failure occurs without a pronounced pathognomonic sign. However, if a woman went to the doctor with a suspicion of infertility, the specialist can determine its presence by indirect, secondary symptoms:

  • discomfort or painful sensations in the pelvic area;
  • menstrual irregularities;
  • heavy, painful periods;
  • Infertility in families with close relatives;
  • Abnormally heavy vaginal discharge with an unusual odor and color, which may be evidence of an inflammatory process;
  • Being overweight or too thin;
  • Thyroid dysfunction (see an endocrinologist);
  • Severe hirsutism – increased hair loss;
  • masculine body type;
  • The presence of severe acne;
  • The presence of chronic pathologies, malformations that are not associated with the reproductive system.
Female infertility – causes and treatment, signs, symptoms and classification

Signs of Sickness

The absence of pregnancy during a year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse with one sexual partner is the main sign of female infertility. The period of one year is determined by statistical calculations. The proof is that a pregnancy with regular sexual intercourse occurs in the first three months in 30% of healthy couples. During the next seven months another 60% of couples conceive. After eleven to twelve months after the beginning of regular sex life, fertilization occurs in the remaining 10%.

From this it follows that a year is a sufficient time to assess the ability of a particular couple to conceive a child. And if in this period the pregnancy did not come despite all efforts, the absence of contraception and the absence of abnormalities of the partner it makes sense to talk about the presence of female infertility.


In order to appoint a competent and effective treatment of female infertility, it is necessary to start with an unambiguous diagnosis. To confirm suspicions of its presence will help gynecological examination and ultrasound – conducted at the earliest stage to assess the size and specific structure of the ovaries, uterus, to identify pelvic organ pathology. Hormone tests are also prescribed to determine the function of the endocrine system and ovaries.

The patient’s own drawing of a basal temperature chart for 2 to 3 menstrual cycles, which is used to evaluate ovulation, also helps in diagnosis. At the discretion of the doctor as an additional survey may be assigned ultrasound monitoring of follicle maturation and ovulation.

What other techniques are used

Successful combat female infertility may be possible if the entire arsenal of available modern techniques, including laparoscopy, which is both therapeutic and diagnostic procedure. During the laparoscopy procedure, the specialist has the opportunity to observe a clear magnified image of the pelvic organs on the screen. If the causes of infertility are discovered during the procedure, the specialist can eliminate them directly during the procedure: remove foci of endometriosis, ovarian cysts, adhesions.

Hysteroscopy is also used to examine the uterine cavity more accurately, to detect abnormalities not diagnosed by ultrasound and routine examination. Hysterosalpingography is designed to determine the patency of the fallopian tubes. The examination is based on injecting a contrasting substance into the uterus, after which a series of pictures are taken.

Female infertility treatment

The choice of treatment method for female infertility is determined by the cause that led to the development of the pathology. Thus, drug therapy is used in female infertility, which is caused by infectious diseases. In such a situation, antibiotic therapy is prescribed – drugs such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, metrogil, metronidazole and similar means.

Conservative treatment is also prescribed for symptoms of the endocrine variety of the disease. Such treatment is based on the use of drugs that contain hormones, including clomid, recombinant or urinary gonadotropins. When an immunological type of infertility is diagnosed, corticosteroids and antihistamines are usually prescribed.

What methods are used

Surgical methods of treatment are also used to combat female infertility. These methods of elimination of the ailment are usually effective in the detection of pathologies of the uterus and fallopian tubes. In this situation we are talking about minimally invasive operations that cause minimal harm to the patient. These manipulations are performed only in hospital conditions. The rehabilitation period in this case does not exceed 3-5 days.

The most popular surgical methods are hysteroscopy and laparoscopy, which are also used for diagnostic purposes. In female infertility caused by a psychological factor, which, according to statistics, occurs in approximately 30% of cases of problems with reproductive function, the patient is affected by psychological factors – shocks experienced, stresses. In this situation, psychotherapists and psychologists can help solve the problem.

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